Category: Pet health and nutrition

Your Cat Keeps Secrets: Subtle Signs of Illness in Cats

Cats are notoriously enigmatic creatures.  Like the Cheshire Cat in Alice in Wonderland , your cat keeps secrets.  She may not show pain or other signs that she is sick. That’s why subtle signs of illness in cats require prompt veterinary attention.

Your cat keeps secrets

Cats retain many of their species’ undomesticated behavioral characteristics.  In the wild, all but the largest cats are both predator and prey.   It’s important for animals that are being hunted as prey to hide their weaknesses.  Consequently, cats have become masters of misdirection.

Veterinary professionals struggle to define the signs of pain in cats consistenly.  A validated method to score pain, for instance, is useful in assessing recovery from painful procedures or illness.  Cats’ tendency to mask their pain and demonstrate only very subtle behavioral changes makes reliable detection and grading of pain difficult at best.

A large survey of feline medical specialists evaluated 91 signs of pain.  Participants answered questions about the reliability of these indicators of pain to accurately detect real pain in cats.  The participants narrowed these signs down to only 22.  You can find the full list in the article, which is available as a free full text in PubMed. 1

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Signs of illness in cats require prompt attention

Because cats hide pain and other evidence of ill health, any unusual signs you observe are probably just the tip of the iceberg.  As a cat owner, you should take any and all behavioral changes in your cat seriously.  Here are some easily overlooked clinical signs along with their potential significance.  This is not meant to be an inclusive list, so be sure to ask your veterinarian about any unusual signs in your cat.

  1. Eating less/not eating:  Cats need to eat regular meals.  Cats that stop eating, especially if they’re fat, can develop liver disease.  If you haven’t been able to get your cat to eat for 24 hours, talk to your veterinarian.  Decreased appetite in cats may be a sign of gastrointestinal disease, but may also be a sign of generalized disease and poor health.
  2. Eating more: If your cat suddenly develops a voracious appetite, he may have an endocrine disease such as diabetes or hyperthyroidism.  You should be especially concerned if your cat eats more but does not gain, or even loses, weight.
  3. Increased urination:  Although you might not directly observe your cat using the litterbox more frequently, chances are you will notice increased litter clumping or odor in the box.  You may find yourself changing the litter more frequently.  This can be a sign of diabetes, kidney disease, hyperthyroidism, or other problem.
  4. Decreased urination: Especially with a male cat, decreased urination could be a sign of developing urinary blockage.  If your cat stops urinating, this is a medical emergency.  Your cat may exhibit signs of pain or distress when attempting to urinate.
  5. Urination outside the litter box:  Urinary pain may cause your cat to avoid the litterbox.  The joint pain of arthritis may also be associated with inappropriate urination outside the box.  If it’s painful to enter the box, your cat will be reluctant to use it.  If your cat has consistently used the litter box but begins to have accidents in the house, consult your veterinarian.
  6. Increased activity level:  If your laid-back and lazy cat turns into a dynamo in constant motion, you should be suspicious of an underlying problem.  Hyperthyroidism is common in cats and can cause increased activity.
  7. Decreased activity level:  A noticeable decrease in your cat’s activity may also be a sign that your cat needs a check-up.  Arthritis can lead to decreased activity as can systemic disease.
  8. Change in vocalization:  If you notice that your cat is calling out more, or less, or has a change in her voice, it’s time for a check-up.  Changes in the frequency and intensity of vocalization may be a sign of pain or underlying disease.  Changes in tone can be due to respiratory problems, polyps, hyperthryoidism, or other illness.
  9. Ear scratching or head shaking may be a sign of infection or ear mites.
  10. Changes in coat quality: If your cat is not grooming herself, it may be because of pain or illness.  Arthritis may make grooming more difficult for cats.  Disease can sap energy and lead to decreased grooming.  Any time you notice a change in your cat’s coat, you should suspect a problem.
  11. Weight loss or loss of muscle:  If you cat is getting thinner or if you notice that the muscles feel smaller, this may be a sign of a number of systemic diseases including diabetes, hyperthyroidism, renal disease, gastrointestinal disease, and others.  These signs may develop so gradually that you may not notice the change over time.

A case study

My favorite cat, Boogey, was not doing well.  His parents hadn’t noticed anything specific, but he wasn’t as energetic as usual and just looked a little scruffy to them. He was free fed, but his owners didn’t note an increase or decrease in the amount he was eating.  He may or may not have been using his litterbox more.

Although his signs were mild and non-specific, his parents decided to have him checked out.  Sure enough, bloodwork showed that he had developed diabetes.  Once he was treated with insulin, his parents observed marked improvement in his coat condition, but also in his body condition.  They hadn’t noticed that he was gradually losing muscle tone.  Even though his diet was restricted, he was able to put on weight once his disease was treated.

Boogey’s story demonstrates that a cat can be seriously ill but show only mild signs.  He had a good outcome, but if his parents hadn’t taken him in to see the veterinarian, the story might have ended in tragedy.  Subtle signs of illness in cats require prompt medical attention.

1 Merola, I. and Mills, D., Behavioural Signs of Pain in Cats, an Expert Consensus, PLoS One, 2016, 11(2).

Photo credit: Unsplash

Four Rules to Help You Understand Pet Food

Four Pet Food Rules

Have you ever wondered whether a food labeled “tuna dinner” is better for your cat than a food labeled “with tuna?”  Pet food companies like to find creative and appealing names for their products, but these names may be confusing.  Four easy to understand rules about how pet foods are named can help you to understand what’s really in a product.

Four Rules number 1: The 95% rule

This rule applies to pet foods with a limited number of ingredients.  At least 95% of the product must be the named ingredient.  For example, a dog food may be named Chicken for Dogs.  If there are two named ingredients, then they must total 95% of the product.  The ingredient that makes up the larger percentage must be named first.  A company can’t market a product as lamb and rice, for instance, if rice is actually the main ingredient.

Four Rules Number 2: The Dinner Rule

Some foods, especially cat foods, are labeled as a “dinner.” If the named ingredient makes up at least 25% of the product, but less than 95%, then the company has to give it a name like “dinner,” “platter,” or “entree.”  There are many different types of names that may be used.  For these products, the named ingredient has to make up only 25% of the product, and it is likely not the main ingredient.  As an example, a “chicken formula” could also contain fish, and could contain more fish than chicken.  It’s important to check the label on this type of food, especially if your pet has a food allergy. Remember, the ingredients are required to be listed in descending order of predominance by weight.   If there are two named ingredients, then they must make up 25% of the product together.

Four Rules Number 3: The 3% Rule

Sometimes a pet food manufacturer may want to point out a special ingredient on the label, although it only makes a small percent of the food.  In this case, the name might be “Chicken Dinner with Cheese.”  The special ingredient only has to make up 3% of the food.  So don’t be confused.  Dog Food with Beef is not the same as “Beef Dinner for Dogs.”

Four Rules Number 4: The Flavor Rule

The last rule may be the trickiest.  There aren’t any rules for the amount of flavor that must be included.  The flavor simply has to be detectable, generally by animals trained to detect the flavor.  And, the flavor may contain the named ingredient, or it may not.  “Liver Flavor” could contain liver, or it could contain a mixture of other ingredients that taste like liver.

As the four rules demonstrate, pet owners should always read pet food labels carefully.  This is the first in a series of articles about pet food labeling and ingredients.  Next up:  The Truth about Byproducts.  You may also learn more about labels here. 

 

Confused About Dog Genetic Tests? This Database Can Help

A host of companies promote dog genetic tests to pet parents, breeders, and veterinary healthcare providers.  The number of choices can be overwhelming.  A new database will make the choice easier.

The problem

The recent proliferation of laboratory tests analyzing canine DNA has opened up a world of new information for researchers, breeders, veterinarians, and pet parents.  But there are no harmonized, mandatory standards for the diagnostic laboratories running veterinary tests.  Accreditation via different agencies is voluntary.  Without harmonized quality standards, the performance of tests from different labs may be very different, and some tests may not be reliable.

The invention of testing methods has also outpaced the availability of the underlying research to the general public.  As a result, pet parents, breeders, and veterinarians may not have all the information they need to make a decision about which tests to use and how to interpret the results.

The solution

In order to help the animal health community make informed decisions about genetic testing, the International Partnership for Dogs (IPFD) has created a database of 18 genetic testing providers (GTP) and 300 specific genetic tests.  The database provides information about the quality standards, accreditation, and expertise of providers.  Users of the database will also find detailed information about the clinical use and background for each specific genetic test.  The database will help the user to understand the science that supports the genetic tests.

How it works

Users of the database may search by breed, by specific test, or by laboratory provider. The IPFD recommends that you get familiar with the site before running your first search.  On the left of the home screen (circled in the screenshot below) you will find links to information about how to use the database, types of accreditation, breed-specific health recommendations, and basics of genetic testing.

genetic testing for dogs, IPFD, database,dog genetic tests

Dog genetic tests have great potential to improve the health and well-being of dogs.  Knowledge about genetic mutations in individual dogs can lead to better preventive medicine, more effective treatments, and responsible breeding practices.  The IPFD is working to harmonize quality standards to make the promise of genetic testing for dogs a reality.

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Is It Safe for a Dog to Swim in a Chlorine Pool?

Is it safe for a dog to swim in a chlorine pool?

It’s pool season, and dogs need to cool off as much as their humans do.   But is it safe for a dog to swim in a chlorine pool?  It is, but you need to follow some simple rules to keep your dog safe during and after water play.

Are dogs more sensitive than people to chlorine?

At the levels used to maintain pools, chlorine is most likely as safe for dogs as it is for people.  Because dogs have a more acute sense of smell than humans, some people speculate that dogs may be more sensitive to the effects of chlorine in pools.  There is no scientific evidence that dogs display a higher sensitivity to chlorine.

Should my dog drink pool water?

While it is true that some pools may be maintained at chlorination levels close to the maximum level (4 parts per million) allowed in drinking water, there are still some differences.  Some products of chlorine, called chloramines,  are formed when chlorine combines with compounds in skin, disinfectants, and body secretions.  Chloramines are responsible for the characteristic pool smell, and they are also largely responsible for red, burning eyes and itchy skin after swimming.  And chloramines stay in the water longer than chlorine.

Your dog will likely not become ill after drinking small amounts of pool water.  However, it is best to discourage her from drinking pool water, and always keep clean, fresh water available.

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Will swimming after eating cause my dog to bloat?

If your dog is a deep-chested or large breed predisposed to stomach bloat and twisting, a serious condition, you should always limit exercise within an hour before to an hour after eating.  Swimming does not appear to increase the risk of bloat over other forms of exercise.

Simple rules to keep your dog safe during and after water play

  1. Hose your dog off prior to letting him in the pool.  This cuts down on dander that increases chloramines.
  2. Always monitor swim time, and use a dog life jacket if your dog is not a strong swimmer.
  3. Never force your dog to enter the pool.
  4. Limit drinking from the pool.
  5. Hose your dog off after swimming to avoid skin irritation.  Be sure to dry his ears.
  6. Shampoo and condition your dog more frequently during swim season.  Chlorine can dry out the skin and coat
  7. Keep chlorine tablets out of reach of dogs and children.

It’s safe for a dog to swim in a chlorine pool. Swimming is among the very best exercises for dogs of all breeds, activity levels, and ages.  During the summer, it’s also a way to get your dog the exercise she needs while avoiding heat exhaustion.   If you and your dog are lucky enough to have access to a dog-friendly pool, get out there and swim!

 

It’s Flea and Tick Season. Are you ready? You Should Be, and Here’s Why

Are you ready for flea and tick season?  A new report from the Centers for Disease Control reveals that vector-borne diseases, including those spread by ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas are increasing in the US.  These diseases impact humans and their pets.  Make sure you and your pets are protected this summer!

Cases of vector-borne diseases are increasing

The number of reported cases of disease spread by fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes, called vector-borne diseases, in the US tripled between 2004 and 2016, according to the Centers for Disease Control in their Vital Signs report.  There are several reasons why incidence of these diseases is on the rise.  People are increasingly moving into forested areas and areas where wildlife is abundant.  Warmer climate extends the range of many insect vectors, and warmer winters prolong the length of the insect season. Although increasing surveillance may be responsible for an increased number of reports, the CDC warns that cases of these diseases are most likely underreported.

Vector-borne diseases in the United States

vector-borne diseases, ticks, fleas, mosquitoes, heartworm disease, tick season

Important diseases spread by vectors in the US, by region.  This table was created using data from the CDC.

Beware of ticks

We’re hearing reports from friends in northwest Arkansas and elsewhere that ticks are especially numerous this year, and by all accounts it is going to be a dangerous tick season.  Ticks are vectors for many diseases of humans and animals.  In the US, the most important tick-borne diseases are ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis. All of theses tick diseases affect domestic animals, especially dogs,  as well as humans.

Ticks transmit Cytauxzoonosis, a less well-known disease. This disease, which is often fatal, infects cats and causes systemic disease.  Symptoms include lethargy, decreased appetite, breathing difficulty, and pale gums (a sign of anemia).

Control fleas

Fleas are more than just a nuisance.  They can transmit some diseases that are harmful to both people and animals. We are all familiar with the series of plagues that decimated populations in Europe in centuries past.  But did you know that the same disease, bubonic plague, is present in parts of the US?  Prairie dogs and other animals in the Western and Southwestern US may carry this disease.

Fleas in all areas of the US may carry tapeworms.  When animals eat the fleas during grooming, they also ingest immature tapeworms which then mature in their gut.  Although tapeworms may also be transmitted through eating the flesh of infected rodents or other animals, wiping out fleas eliminates a major source of infection.

Fleas transmit cat scratch fever.  This disease is also called bartonellosis, and it generally does not cause symptoms in affected cats.  However, humans may contract the disease through cat bites or scratches.  Infection results in painful enlargement of lymph nodes in the area of the bite or scratch.

Fleas are vectors for another disease of cats, Mycoplasma hemofelis.  This organism causes anemia, sometimes severe and even fatal, in infected cats.

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Prevent mosquito bites

The number one reason to keep your pets away from mosquitoes is heartworm disease.  Although far more common in dogs, this disease also affects cats.  Even the bite of one infected mosquito may cause disease.  Heartworm disease has been reported in all areas of the US.  Where there are mosquitoes, there are heartworms.

Dogs and cats are not as susceptible as humans to the viral encephalitides, viral diseases that affect the nervous system.  West Nile virus affects birds.  Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus causes disease in horses and humans.  Owners can vaccinate horses against this disease.

Consult your veterinarian

Flea, tick, and mosquito control products for pets are available over the counter.  However, pest and parasite control in pets is a complex issue that involves both animal and environmental solutions.  Some animals are sensitive to certain types of products. Wherever you choose to buy these products, you should always consult with your veterinarian about the available options. Your veterinarian will be familiar with a variety of products and will be able to tell you which will be the best options for your pet and family this flea and tick season.

Learn More

The CDC is a good source of information about vector borne diseases.  Check out the visual map to learn more about the diseases in your area.  For veterinary-specific information, use the IDEXX Laboratories interactive map.

Photo credit: Shutterstock.com